At present — crore rupees are required for establishing a semen sexing facility and it takes around 5 years to start production. The sorting process basically involves exploiting the differences in deoxyribonucleic acid DNA content between X-chromosome-bearing and Y-chromosome-bearing sperms.
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Many religious sects also prohibit slaughter of bulls which has resulted in communal ten sions. Improvement in semen sexing technology can bring down the price and increase success rate of fertilization. Getting a cub of the desired gender can be economically valuable. Sexed semen is presently recommended only for use on maiden heifers.
Reduced s of unwanted male calves.
Beef is generally produced from male calves of buffalos or cows. AI can be utilized for improving breeds faster in a large population of cattle because semen can be transported more easily than animals. At times, male calves are also desired to rapidly implement a genetic improvement program using genetically superior bulls.
AI is now a popular, simple and inexpensive technique used quite often for cattle breeding in India. However, presently, sexed semen is mainly imported from the USA and Canada which is not from indigenous breeds.
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The issue of low conception rates for milking cows is a concern for the whole dairy farming industry and not a specific issue for sexed semen use. A sexed semen facility can cost about Rs — crore over a five-year period. Technology is now well proven with reliable sex ratio.
Though most farmers are unaware of sexed semen, the supply often falls short. The semen is collected from males, processed in the laboratory and preserved in liquid nitrogen for later use in AI based on convenience of time and place.
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Using AI, one semen of a good breed male can be utilized for machine of many females. Sexed semen for X chromosome bearing sperm of cattle can be beneficial for cattle farmers in India as female calves have high value due to milk production. This will not only economically benefit cattle farmers but also avoid risk to communal harmony. The conception rates with milking cows are lower than with unsexed semen.
Sexed semen has been available commercially for a of years, although the uptake by the dairy milking has been low until recently. However, currently there is no agency in India, producing sexed semen on a large scale, although many states import sexed semen. The cost to the farmer is around Rs per straw of sexed semen7while a straw of semen without sexing costs only Rs This technology is based on unequal DNA amounts in the X-chromosome bearing sperm versus Y-chromosome bearing sperm. In s, the Government of India introduced key village schemes involving AI for improvement of animals.
As the X-chromosome-bearing sperms contain more DNA, these cells absorb more dye and emit more light. Sexed semen technology is about preselecting the sex of offspring by sorting or separating the X-sperms from Y-sperms. According to the 19th livestock censusthere are million breedable cattle in India.
Ina Texas-based company, Sexing Technologies STcommercialised sexed semen production using a procedure to stain the sperm cells with a fluorescent dye that binds to their DNA. The dyed cells are made to pass through a laser beam from a machine flow cytometer that can sort the sperms based on the amount of fluorescent light they give off.
This technology is being used on a limited basis, and there seems to be considerable interest in this new tool on dairy farms. A single dose contains 4 million sperms; therefore this machine can produce around 66 doses in 24 hours run time, which is very costly considering the 4—5 crore rupees cost of the machine itself. Artificial insemination AI is technique in which preserved semen is introduced artificially into the reproductive tract of the female for conception.
Breeder tom management to ensure high quality semen
Due to mechanization of agriculture and transport, oxen or bulls are no longer required and only female calves are retained by farmers for milk production. Microfluidic devices are also being developed as cell shorter, which can result in cost effective, non invasive point of care devices for semen sexing. But the issue here is cost, which, for AI using conventional semen frozen in 0. The aim is to deliver freedom from male calves, by ensuring that cows are inseminated by semen containing only X-chromosome-bearing sperms n these times of gaurakshak activism, there can be nothing worse for dairy farmers than their cows or buffaloes delivering male calves.
This creates an animal welfare issue and moral compunction among animal lovers.
Compared to the census, the milch animals cow and buffalo have increased from million to million inan increase of 6. When a sperm and egg unite, and the former carries the X-chromosome, the resultant offspring is female XX. When a Y-chromosome-bearing sperm fertilises an egg, the result is a male calf XY. The aim is to deliver freedom from male calves, by ensuring that cows are inseminated by semen containing only X-chromosome-bearing sperms. Using this sexed semen, the conception rates observed were The National Dairy Research Institute NDRIKarnal has also been funded with Rs 55 crore budget for semen sexing of cattle with an aim to multiply indigenous and crossbred cows in the country by providing sexed semen to farmers.
However, male calves are loosing relevance as draught animals due to mechanization of agriculture.
Quality determination of frozen semen before use for ai in domestic animals
Indigenous breed will be used as a semen source and each year these facilities will produce 2 million doses of sexed semen. With ordinary semen used in artificial insemination AIthat probability is That freedom has been further curtailed in a regime of empowered gaurakshaks on the prowl. At present there is zero value for a bull calf and these calves are abandoned after they are no longer required for milking the cow. Increase in the of dairy heifer calves. India has a ready market for sexed semen and has the potential to expand if the cost is reduced and sperm viability is enhanced resulting in more successful fertilization.
The fluorescence intensity of DNA binding dye Hoechst is higher in X sperm than Y sperm which can be shorted using a flow cytometer.
In India, the first AI was done in Mysore inusing preserved semen of Holstein Friesian bulls for fertilization of Halliker cows. The former contains slightly more DNA, with the difference ranging from 3. There have been many attempts to separate the X and Y sperms on the basis of surface protein marker, density, motility, etc.
India is already importing sexed semen5. ABS India Inc alone imports 1 million straws of sexed semen every year6. More crossbred calves available for beef sector. Sexed semen, also called Gender Enhanced Semen GES has been commercially available in the Indian dairy industry for approximately six year. These can be reared and sold as replacements currently, there is a shortage of replacement heifers throughout Europe.
The Punjab Progressive Dairy Farmers Association is the largest consumer in India with a purchase of around 20, doses. Development of alternative techniques not involving flow cytometry could bring the cost down. This patented technology uses a DNA binding dye which can cause DNA damage, and the instrument is also very expensive.
Milking machine operation and maintenance
Improved dairy farm margins from sale of surplus stock heifers or beef cross calves. The concerns over slaughtering of unwanted male dairy calves and the possible shortage of dairy replacements and beef cattle have led to a greater demand for sexed semen. Inthere were 92 million female buffalos and only 16 million male buffalos, indicating preference for female buffalos in livestock. That, then, allows for separation of the X- and Y- sperm fractions in the semen.
This technique has also decreased the risk of transfer of venereal diseases.
An indigenous technique for semen sexing can go a long way in decreasing cost, preserving genetic diversity of cattle and animal welfare. The animal husbandry department plans to breed sixty lakh cows for improving the breed of cattles every year, through the sexed semen program.
Farmers sell them at low prices or sometimes leave them orphan.
SexedULTRA semen shorting method involves orienting nozzle technique which is monopolized through exclusive patenting, causing increase in the price of the semen. The fertilization of bovine egg by X sperms in the birth of female calves whereas Y sperms result in male calves. Fewer cases of dystocia calving difficulties. These techniques have been patented but are not effective because X and Y sperms do not differ ificantly in these aspects. Sexed semen from Indian breeds of milking is more suitable as the cattle are more adapted to the Indian climate.
The comparable cost of sexed semen to the farmer is now anywhere between Rs 1, and Rs 2, per straw. The egg of a cow, too, contains 30 chromosomes, one of which is, however, always an X-chromosome just as the human sperm and egg have 23 chromosomes each, one of them either an X- or a Y-chromosome in the machine of the former, and one only an X-chromosome for the latter.
Alternatively, having enough replacements reduces the need to buy in stock and improves farm biosecurity. However, this difference in value will be more in India because the demand for beef in India is less and beef has to be exported. For —17, an amount of crore rupees were allocated for promoting semen sexing technology4.
Information to farmers about the efficacy of sexed semen may be out of date. Development of an indigenous technology will also make sexed semen more affordable. Restricted of sires available and the fact that currently demand is greater than supply.